Myers-Briggs Type indicator

MBTI psychological test-One of the most recommended and accepted personality test worldwide. MBTI stands for Myers-Briggs Type indicator. It is a type of psychological assessment that was designed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myer after studying the work of Carl Jung a renowned Psychologist and Psychiatrist. This Psychological test was developed during World War-II with a belief that personality assessment would help women-who in that time were entering the industrial workforce for the first time to identify the jobs that will be-most comfortable and effective for them.

This test generally comprises of a questionnaire that is designed to measure psychological preferences of a human i.e. how the person perceives the world and makes decisions.

When are these tests used?

These tests are very commonly used nowadays and are used in:-

  • Self-Understanding and Development
  • Career Development and Exploration
  • Organization Development
  • Team Building
  • Management and leadership training
  • Problem solving
  • Relationship counseling
  • Education and curriculum development
  • Academic counseling
  • Diversity and multicultural training

MBTI Instrument results identify valuable differences between normal, healthy people, differences that can be the source of much misunderstanding and miscommunication.

How does this test work?

Carl Jung’s Psychological Model describes and states that individuals are born with or develop certain ways of perceiving and deciding. The MBTI sorts these ways into four opposite pairs or dichotomies, with resulting 16 psychological types. These four pairs are:

  • ESTJ: extroversion (E), sensing (S), thinking (T), judgment (J)
  • INFP: introversion (I), intuition (N), feeling (F), perception (P)

Each of these terms has a special technical meaning in terms of psychology. But these terms do not define any individual they just depict that a man prefers a particular trait over others. For e.g. People who prefer judgment over perception are not necessarily more judgemental or less perceptive. Nor does the MBTI instrument measure aptitude it simply indicates for one preference over another. Forced Choice Means that the individual has to choose one out of the two options given. Choices are not literal opposites but chosen to reflect opposite preferences on the same dichotomy.

Using psychometric techniques, such as item response theory, the MBTI will then be scored and will attempt to identify the preference, and clarity of preference, in each dichotomy. The MBTI requires five points one way or another to indicate a clear preference.


The test is scored by evaluating each answer in terms of what it reveals about taker. Each question is related to one of the following personality traits such as:


The first trait reflects what generically energizes a person. Extroverted types learn best by talking and interacting with others. By interacting with the physical world, extroverts can process and make sense of new information. Introverted types prefer quiet reflection and privacy. Information processing occurs for introverts as they explore ideas and concepts internally.


The second trait reflects what a person focuses their attention on. Sensing types enjoy a learning environment in which the material is presented in a detailed and sequential manner. Sensing types often attend to what is occurring in the present and can move to the abstract after they have established a concrete experience. Intuitive types prefer a learning atmosphere in which an emphasis is placed on meaning and associations. Insight is valued higher than careful observation, and pattern recognition occurs naturally for Intuitive types.


The third trait reflects the person’s decision preferences. Thinking types desire objective truth and logical principles and are natural at deductive reasoning. Feeling types place an emphasis on issues and causes that can be personalized while they consider other people’s motives.


The fourth trait reflects how the person regards complexity. Judging types will thrive when information is organized and structured, and they will be motivated to complete assignments to gain closure. Perceiving types will flourish in a flexible learning environment in which they are stimulated by new and exciting ideas.

These are the areas in which the personality of an individual is judged and according to his answers, a final score is presented. This test helps you to realize what areas are your strength and which areas are your weakness or in which area you need to work upon. This test also had its share of skepticism associated with it, still this test is the most widely accepted by industries and organizations for psychometric analysis while hiring their employees.

Guess what, you can take your free test here:

Should Companies Invest in Research and Development?

If I ask you what is the relation between an Electric Bulb, a transistor and a telephone? You would probably think that there is no relation between them. But these are all the perfect examples of how innovation can help economic progress and attain great heights. Invention and innovation have always been responsible for economic growth.

What exactly is innovation? Various organizations and people come up with different ideas of innovation but common to every definition is the idea of realizing commercial value by creating something that did not previously exist. Although innovation is responsible for economic growth but measuring it is quite a challenge.

It has been noted and found that in the last 18 months 25 global companies have set up their R&D centres in India. The analysis also shows that if R&D was treated as an investment rather than a current expense there could have been a 2.7% rise in the G.D.P. of the country.

Many in the public think of R&D as something that only big businesses undertake, ploughing billions into huge labs, vast testing fields, wind tunnels, and crash dummies flailing around as auto are crashed into walls. R&D is associated with the pharmaceutical industry, miracle cures, Laser Eye Surgery, and super-fast jet travel. To be sure, a vast amount of the money expended on formal research is expended by large corporations- often on relatively trivial improvements of products already doing quite a good job – and by the government on weapons systems and space exploration. The glory and the power thus displayed before our eyes on television fail to remind us that the crucial research and development on which much else is based has been – and continues to be – the work of small businesses and entrepreneurs.

R&D is a process that is intended to create new and improved technologies that prove a competitive advantage at the business and industrial level. The functions of R&D must be carefully organized and controlled. It is very tempting to believe that if the organization is running smoothly with good profits and all its employees are functioning well, it will continue to work in the same way. But sadly, it is not the case. The constant development of business and the team are essential to surpass others in the market and have a competitive edge. This is largely possible through research.

Research is not only limited to science and medical field it is an integrated part of any organization- big or small. A company consists of a team of people that steer the course of business growth. It is through the decision of these people that the company is able to succeed or fail in the market. These people keep a record of the data and analyze the company’s performance and output, and based on this research, the company makes changes in its product and policies. Many organizations have a full-fledged research department to ensure the quality of their product and also at the same time invent new products.

According to the National Science Foundation the research can be classified into 3 types:

    1. Basic Research: This research has its objective of getting deeper knowledge about the subject under study. This research does not deal with practical application. In industrial terms, basic research advances scientific knowledge but does not have commercial objective.
    2. Applied research: This research is conducted to carry out and gain knowledge about methods that will help in meeting a certain requirement. This research is basically focused on the discovery of new knowledge having specific commercial objective with respect to the company’s product or services.
    3. Development. Development is the systematic utilization of the knowledge or understanding gained from research toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems, or methods, including design and development of prototypes and processes.

It is, however, necessary not to confuse Research and Development with engineering as engineering is the application of state of art knowledge to design and produce marketable goods. Research creates knowledge, and development designs and builds prototypes and proves their feasibility. Engineering converts these prototypes into products that can be offered to the marketplace or into processes that can be used to produce commercial products and services.

Every Research and Development department should consider the following points before initializing any project:

      • Maximize the long term return on investment
      • Make proper and optimum use of the human and physical resource.
      • Maintain a balanced R&D portfolio and control risk
      • Develop or foster a favourable condition for research and innovation.

Research and Development have a vast advantage to offer to any organization or institution. Apart from helping the business grow these can also provide companies with tax benefits. The government allows the companies to deduct their R&D expenses from their income. Thus this saves a considerable amount of money and also, on the other hand, helps the company prosper and the country grows.

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How to shape your resume?

In the professional field, your resume is the most relevant and the most important document. It is your identity in a professional field. A resume is something that we keep on building or updating throughout our life. Most of the students or even qualified professionals face problems building up a great resume. Even if some people build a resume the resume is not up to the mark or great enough for the companies to consider it.
One must know that a company has hundreds or thousands of resumes in front of it to select its employee. It is you who need to format your resume in the correct format and present it in a manner that it must stand out from the rest of the resumes.
So how to build a great resume? How to make your resume be noticed by the employer? Below you would find some tips and suggestions that you may follow to make your resume stand out from rest of them.

  • Choose the basic font: Before writing the resumes choose the correct format. One should avoid going for stylish fonts and characters. The resume looks best when it is in the basic format and style.
  • Include all your contact details: While making a resume you should try and mention all your contact details especially phone numbers, so that the company can get into touch with you as smoothly and quickly as possible. Your complete address should be mentioned including your zip code.
  • Mention your Objective: Always try and mention your objective as what is your motive in life. If your objective matches the job profile then your chances of being hired increase. But try not to boast yourself or your objectives as this gives a negative impression.
  • Use keywords: Try to use keywords that appeared in the job description. By doing this the chances of you getting selected increase. But again do not boast.
  • Prioritize your content: Try to focus and give emphasis on your special achievements so as these things are considered first. Keep your achievements mentioned at the top.
  • Choose the correct type of resume: Based on your need and job profile try and choose the best resume format to apply. Depending on your circumstances you can choose a chronological, functional, combination, or a targeted resume. Take the time to write your resume.
  • Try and go for templates: Try to use a resume template to prepare your resume incorrect format. You can afterward customize the resume to your required format.
  • Never Copy: Never try to copy a resume of someone else and make changes to it. Rather go for typing your resume yourself as this helps you make the required changes and you will never leave any unedited part behind. This also helps you recall what all is there in your resume as this is the part from where the interviewers ask the most questions from.

Resume writing is also an art that helps you get what you deserve. It is the first impression of you on the employer. Always write or build up your resume with ease and using sufficient time. Never work in haste. A good resume helps you to get a good job.

Is studying abroad beneficial?

Most of the individuals in their school days or even childhood develop the dream of studying abroad. Even statistics show that about 15% of the total students go abroad for their graduation or higher studies. Why is the craze for studying abroad increasing among the youth? Does this education or qualification or a degree from abroad really helps in getting jobs and placement?

Reasons why you should consider studying abroad?

Studying abroad can be a very beneficial experience for a number of reasons. Some potential benefits of studying abroad include:

  1. Personal growth: Studying abroad can help you to become more independent, adaptable, and confident. You will be exposed to new cultures, languages, and ways of life, which can help you to develop a greater understanding and appreciation of the world around you.
  2. Educational opportunities: Studying abroad can give you access to educational experiences and resources that may not be available in your home country. This can include courses and programs that are not offered at your home university, as well as the opportunity to work with top professors and researchers in your field of study.
  3. Career development: Studying abroad can help you to develop valuable skills that are highly sought after by employers, such as language fluency, cross-cultural communication, and adaptability. These skills can be particularly useful if you are interested in working in an international setting.
  4. Cultural immersion: Studying abroad allows you to fully immerse yourself in a new culture, which can be a rewarding and enriching experience. You will have the opportunity to learn about different customs, traditions, and ways of life, and may even have the chance to live with a host family or participate in a homestay program.
  5. Language Skills: They tend to develop various communication skills and studying abroad also hones their language and they tend to learn and improve their language skills be it reading or writing. It comes out at some point of time that these languages that they learnt helped them get a job at a later point of time.
  6. Social Skills: One of the positive aspects of studying abroad is the concept that this helps them learn social behavior. And apart from academic excellence extracurricular achievements also is a good criterion for getting first employment. These students or graduates also tend to develop more patience and confidence as compared to other employees and can take up team work with much more passion and willingness.
  7. Discovering Oneself: Researchers tend to say that people after studying abroad tend to develop a new view towards themselves and their culture. They gain experience that helps them realize and reconsider their own beliefs and values.
  8. Breaks your academic routine: Studying abroad helps you to break free from the same academic system offered to you semester after semester and also helps you to gain and learn more about the system followed by other countries.
  9. It also enhances the value of you degree: Studying abroad also helps you take courses that were not offered by the institutes at your home campus. You get to learn and add some more languages to your resume which would definitely increase and add up as a bonus to your degree. Learning a language at your home would require you to invest money while this can be done free of cost and would come quite naturally to you if you study at a foreign location.
  10. Travel: Finally studying abroad helps you to travel a lot and also gives you an opportunity to get out of your comfort zone and explore life to a much greater extent.

Overall, studying abroad can be a valuable and enriching experience that can help you to grow personally and professionally. Now days companies or organisations tend to hire the people who are possessing global awareness apart from the required qualification. Graduates or students who have travelled abroad tend to have gained and experienced foreign culture and can work and fit into any office culture. A survey conducted by U.K. Department proved that the students who had a degree from abroad were at a higher positions and would get job spontaneously rather than the students who studied in the home country. U.K for improving the employment of the students of their country convinced and also at times forced them to go for the foreign internships as these helped them to gain international experience.

The research conducted by the U.S department came out with the extinguishing results regarding the students studying abroad and came out with the conclusion that the students tend to develop unique skills that help them fare better in their careers as compared to their peers who chose to study in their country of domicile

Incase you decide to study abroad, you can choose to do so in fall semester OR spring semester

Is it better to study abroad in fall or spring? 

Cons of studying abroad

While there might be a lot reasons for studying abroad, there are also some reasons why studying abroad will not be the ideal choice for you. There are a few potential drawbacks or challenges to consider when deciding whether or not to study abroad. It is important for you carefully consider these reasons while deciding to choose whether to study abroad OR not. Study abroad consultant might present a biased opinion for obvious reasons and the decision that whether you should study abroad OR not should be your personal + family’s decision ONLY. Some challenges associated with studying abroad are as below

  1. Cost: Studying abroad can be expensive, especially if you are studying in a country with a high cost of living. In addition to tuition and fees, you will also need to budget for things like housing, food, travel, and other living expenses.
  2. Homesickness: Being away from home for an extended period of time can be challenging, and it is not uncommon for students to feel homesick while studying abroad. If you are not comfortable being away from home for long periods of time, or if you have strong ties to your community, you may want to consider whether studying abroad is the right choice for you.
  3. Language barriers: If you are planning to study abroad in a country where you are not fluent in the local language, you may face language barriers that can make it more difficult to communicate with locals and participate in daily life.
  4. Academic challenges: Studying in a foreign country can be academically challenging, as you may need to adjust to different teaching styles and cultural expectations. If you are not comfortable with change or are struggling academically, studying abroad may not be the best choice for you.
  5. Safety concerns: Depending on where you are studying, you may need to be mindful of your personal safety and be aware of any potential security concerns. It is important to research the safety and security situation in the country where you will be studying and to take any necessary precautions.

It is important to carefully consider these potential challenges and drawbacks when deciding whether or not to study abroad. If you are prepared to handle these challenges and are confident that the benefits of studying abroad outweigh the potential drawbacks, then studying abroad can be a very rewarding experience.

Deciding to study abroad OR not is a personal choice and you should consider the above list of pros and cons while deciding to choose if studying abroad is the right choice for you.